Scale aircraft

scale aircraft

Diecast Airplane Store has the largest selection and best prices for die cast airplane and armor. Thousands of die cast military and commercial aircraft. Large Scale Planes, the home of large scale aircraft modeling. A model aircraft is a small unmanned aircraft and may be a replica of an existing or imaginary aircraft. Model aircraft are divided into two basic groups: flying and non-flying. Non-flying models are also termed static, display, or shelf models. TIA CARRERE IN PLAYBOY Over time, theses. This will not due to the applet mode, due. Displays the network when the publisher an image to in full stack.

The airplan. February 2 announcement, delivery expected in March GeminiFebruary This extensive line of quality aircraft replicas features the largest selection of military, commercial, general aviation and spacecraft from the beginning of aviation to the present.

The majority of these high quality replicas are hand crafted from mahog. The line offers commercial and military and space aircraft types unavailable from an. This model features solid injection molded plastic construction with highly detailed graphics.

All models assemble in minutes and include a display stand. Model is approximately 15 inches long with 14 inch wingspan. Standard plastic cement used in the assembly of model kits. Gel style, this glue bonds plastic by melting the bonding surfaces together. NewRay plastic Cessna model on wheels. It comes pre-painted, with only a few parts that are easily assembled Microfilm covering is used for the very lightest models and is made by spreading few drops of lacquer out over several square feet of water, and lifting a wire loop through it, which creates a thin plastic film.

Flying models can be assembled from kits, built from plans, or made completely from scratch. A kit contains the necessary raw material, typically die- or laser-cut wood parts, some moulded parts, plans, assembly instructions and may have been flight tested. Plans are intended for the more experienced modeller, since the builder must make or find the materials themselves.

Scratch builders may draw their own plans, and source all the materials themselves. Any method may be labour-intensive, depending on the model in question. To increase the hobby's accessibility, some vendors offer Almost Ready to Fly ARF models which minimize the skills required, and reduce build time to under 4 hours, versus 10—40 or more for a traditional kit. Ready To Fly RTF radio control aircraft are also available, however model building remains integral to the hobby for many.

For a more mass market approach, foamies, injection-molded from lightweight foam sometimes reinforced have made indoor flight more accessible and many require little more than attaching the wing and landing gear. Gliders do not have an attached powerplant. Larger outdoor model gliders are usually radio-controlled gliders and hand-winched against the wind by a line attached to a hook under the fuselage with a ring, so that the line will drop when the model is overhead. Other methods include catapult-launching, using an elastic bungee cord.

The newer "discus" style of wingtip hand-launching has largely supplanted the earlier "javelin" type of launch. Also using ground-based power winches, hand-towing, and towing aloft using a second powered aircraft. Gliders sustain flight through exploitation of the wind in the environment.

A hill or slope will often produce updrafts of air which will sustain the flight of a glider. This is called slope soaring , and radio controlled gliders can remain airborne for as long as the updraft remains. Another means of attaining height in a glider is exploitation of thermals , which are columns of warm rising air created by differences of temperature on the ground such as between an asphalt parking lot and a lake.

Heated air rises, carrying the glider with it. As with a powered aircraft, lift is obtained by the action of the wings as the aircraft moves through the air, but in a glider, height is gained by flying through air that is rising faster than the aircraft is sinking. Walkalong gliders are lightweight model airplanes flown in the ridge lift produced by the pilot following in close proximity. In other words, the glider is slope soaring in the updraft of the moving pilot see also Controllable slope soaring.

Powered models contain an onboard powerplant , a mechanism powering propulsion of the aircraft through the air. Electric motors and internal combustion engines are the most common propulsion systems, but other types include rocket , small turbine , pulsejet , compressed gas, and tension-loaded twisted rubber band devices. It is the most widely used powerplant, found on everything from children's toys to competition models.

The elastic offers simplicity and durability, but has a short running time, and the initial high torque of a fully wound motor drops sharply before plateauing to a steady output, until the final turns unwind and power drops off completely. Using it efficiently is one of the challenges of competitive free-flight rubber flying, and variable-pitch propellers, differential wing and tailplane incidence and rudder settings, controlled by timers, have been help manage the torque. There are also usually motor weight restrictions in contest classes.

Even so, models have achieved flights of nearly 1 hour. Stored compressed gas, typically carbon dioxide CO 2 , can power simple models in a manner similar to filling a balloon and then releasing it. Compressed CO 2 may also be used to power an expansion engine to turn a propeller. These engines can incorporate speed controls and multiple cylinders, and are capable of powering lightweight scale radio-controlled aircraft. Gasparin and Modela are two recent makers of CO 2 engines.

CO 2 , like rubber, is known as "cold" power because it generates no heat. Steam is even older than rubber power, and like rubber, contributed much to aviation history , is now rarely used. Samuel Pierpont Langley built steam powered and internal combustion powered models that made long flights. Baronet Sir George Cayley built, and flew, internal and external combustion gunpowder -fueled model aircraft engines in , , and These had no crank, working ornithopter -like flappers instead of a propeller.

He speculated that the fuel might be too dangerous for manned aircraft. For larger and heavier models, the most popular powerplant is the glow plug engine. Glow engines are fueled by a mixture of slow burning methanol , nitromethane , and lubricant castor oil or synthetic oil , which is sold pre-mixed as glow-fuel.

Glow-engines require an external starting mechanism; the glow plug must be heated until it is hot enough to ignite fuel to start. Reciprocating cylinders apply torque to a rotating crankshaft , which is the engine's primary power-output. Some power is lost from converting linear motion to rotary and in lost heat and unburned fuel, so efficiency is low.

These are rated by engine displacement and range from 0. The smallest engines can spin a 3. The simplest glow-engines use the two-stroke cycle. These engines are inexpensive, and offer the highest power-to-weight ratio of all glow-engines, but are noisy and require substantial expansion chamber mufflers, which may be tuned.

The power they deliver is more suited to turning larger diameter propellers for lighter weight, higher drag airframes such as with in biplanes. Four-stroke engines are now popular as they are quieter than two-stroke engines, and are available in horizontally opposed twins and radial engine configurations.

Variations include engines with multiple-cylinders, spark-ignition gasoline operation, carbureted diesel operation and variable compression-ratio engines. Diesels are preferred for endurance and have higher torque, and for a given capacity, can "swing" a larger propeller than a glow engine. Home manufacture of model aircraft engines is a hobby in its own right.

Early "jet" style model aircraft used a multi-blade propeller ducted fan , inside ductwork, usually in the fuselage. The fans were generally powered by 2 stroke engines at high RPM. They generally had 0. This fan-in-tube design has been adopted successfully for electric-powered jets while glow engine powered ducted-fan aircraft are now rare. Small jet turbine engines are now used in hobbyist models that resemble simplified versions of the turbojet engines found on commercial aircraft, but are not scaled-down as Renold's numbers come into play.

The first hobbyist-developed turbine was developed and flown in the s but only recently have commercial examples become readily available. Turbines require specialized design and precision-manufacturing, and some have been built from car engine turbocharger units. Owning or operating a turbine-powered aircraft is prohibitively expensive and many national aeromodelling clubs as with the USA's Academy of Model Aeronautics require members to be certified to safely use them.

Rocket engines are sometimes used to boost gliders and sailplanes and the earliest purpose-built rocket motor dates back to the s. This uses solid fuel pellets, ignited by a wick fuse with a reusable casing. Flyers can now also use single-use model rocket engines to provide a short, under 10 second burst of power. Government restrictions in some countries made rocket-propulsion rare but these were being eased in many places and their use was expanding, however a reclassification from "smoke producing devices" to "fireworks" has made them difficult to obtain again.

Electric-powered models use an electric motor powered by a source of electricity - usually a battery. Electrical power began being used on models in the s, but the cost delayed widespread use until the early s, when more efficient battery technologies, and brushless motors became available, while the costs of motors, batteries and control systems dropped dramatically. Electric power now predominated with park-flyer and 3D-flyer models, both of which are small and light, where electric-power offers greater efficiency and reliability, less maintenance and mess, quieter flight and near-instantaneous throttle response compared to gas engines.

The first electric models used brushed DC motors and nickel cadmium NiCad rechargeable cells which gave flight times of 5 to 10 minutes, while a comparable glow-engine provided double the flight-time. Later electric systems used more-efficient brushless DC motors and higher-capacity nickel metal hydride NiMh batteries, yielding considerably improved flight times.

Cobalt and lithium polymer batteries LiPoly or LiPo permit electric flight-times to surpass those of glow-engines, while the more rugged and durable, cobalt-free lithium iron phosphate batteries are also becoming popular. It is now possible to power most models under 20 lb 9. Recent developments have resulted in the use of brushless three-phase motors in model aviation.

Brushless motors are more powerful and offer greater torque and efficiency. The design of brushless motors also means less internal friction, as there is no requirement for brushes to be in contact with any rotating parts. This increase in efficiency results in longer flight times. Most powered model-aircraft, including electric, internal-combustion, and rubber-band powered models, generate thrust by spinning an airscrew.

The propeller is the most commonly used device. Propellers generate thrust due to lift generated by the wing-like sections of the blades, which forces air backwards. A large diameter and low- pitch propeller offers greater thrust and acceleration at low airspeed, while a small diameter and higher-pitch propeller sacrifices acceleration for higher maximum speeds.

The builder can choose from a selection of propellers to match the model but a mismatched propeller can compromise performance, and if too heavy, cause undue wear on the powerplant. For example, a 5 x 3 propeller has a diameter of 5 inches mm , and a pitch of 3 inches 76 mm.

The pitch is the distance that the propeller would advance if turned through one revolution in a solid medium. Two and three bladed propellers are the most common. Ducted fans are multi-blade propellers encased in a cylindrical duct or tube that may look like and fit in the same space as jet engine. They are available for both electric and liquid-fuelled engines, although they have only become common with recent improvements in electric-flight technology.

A model aircraft can now be fitted with four electric ducted fans for less than the cost of a single jet turbine, enabling affordable modelling of multi-engine aeroplanes. Ducted fans are popular with scale models of jet aircraft, where they mimic the appearance of jet engines but they are also found on non-scale and sport models, and even lightweight 3D-flyers. With ornithopters the motion of the wing structure imitates the flapping-wings of living birds , producing both thrust and lift.

World competitions are organised by the FAI in the following classes:. There were contests in , and This trophy is the present Wakefield International Cup and was first awarded in The FAI free flight F1 classes include:. Also referred to as U-Control in the US, it was pioneered by the late Jim Walker who often, for show, flew three models at a time. Normally the model is flown in a circle and controlled by a pilot in the center holding a handle connected to two thin steel wires.

The wires connect through the inboard wing tip of the plane to a mechanism that translates the handle movement to the aircraft elevator, allowing maneuvers to be performed along the aircraft pitch axis. The pilot will turn to follow the model going round, the convention being anti-clockwise for upright level flight.

For the conventional control-line system, tension in the lines is required to provide control. Line tension is maintained largely by centrifugal force. To increase line tension, models may be built or adjusted in various ways. Rudder offset and thrust vectoring tilting the engine toward the outside yaw the model outward. The position where the lines exit the wing can compensate for the tendency of the aerodynamic drag of the lines to yaw the model inboard.

Weight on the outside wing, an inside wing that is longer or has more lift than the outside wing or even no outside wing at all and the torque of a left rotating propeller or flying clockwise tend to roll the model toward the outside. Wing tip weights, propeller torque, and thrust vectoring are more effective when the model is going slowly, while rudder offset and other aerodynamic effects have more influence on a fast moving model.

Since its introduction, control line flying has developed into a competition sport. There are variations on the basic events, including divisions by engine size and type, skill categories, and age of model design. The events originated largely in the United States, and were later adapted for use internationally. World Championships are held semiannually throughout the world, most recently in in France, with a limited slate of events — special varieties of Racing F2C or "Team Race" , combat F2D , and speed F2A , all limited to engines displacing 0.

A pilot and a mechanic compete as a team to fly small g 13 oz 65 cm 26 in wingspan semi-scale racing models over a tarmac or concrete surface. Lines are Three pilots, plus mechanic teams, compete simultaneously in the same circle, and the object is to finish the determined course as fast as possible.

Tank size is limited to 7 cc 0. The mechanic stands at a pit area outside the marked flight circle. The engine is started and the model released on the start signal. The mechanic will catch the model by the wing, fill the tank from a pressurized can by a hose and finger valve, then restart the engine by flicking the propeller with his finger.

A pitstop generally takes less than three seconds. The course is 6. Line pull due to centrifugal force is 19 lbf 85 N. An overtaking model will be steered over the heads of the competing pilots of slower models. After two rounds of elimination heats, the 6, 9 or 12 fastest teams enter two semifinal rounds, and the three fastest teams in the semifinals go to the final, which is run over the double course. Single cylinder two-stroke Diesel compression ignition engines designed for this purpose of up to 2.

At the world championship level it is common for competitors design and build their own engines. Output power approaches 0.

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